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Classic Citation Guide: Chicago 17th

This guide provides tips on citing various citation styles most frequently used at Manhattanville.

What is Chicago Citation?

Chicago citation style is a documentation syle that has been published by the Chicago University Press since 1906. This citation style incorporates rules of grammar and punctuation common in American English. Typically, Chicago style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

From:  Citation Styles: Chicago 17th/Turabian 9th. Libguide: Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE. University of Pittsburg.22 March 2021. Accessed 14 April 2021.

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition with a publication date of 2010 is the one available here online. 

There are 2 print copies of this Manual available at the Reference Desk and in the Ready Reference Collection.  

Tables and Figures

Sample Paper in Chicago Style

Turabian Style

Intro to Chicago style footnotes | EasyBib (2020) (4.08 Minute Video)

Intro to Chicago style footnotes | EasyBib (2020) (4.08 Minute Video)

Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes (Scribbr)

14.34: Shortened citations versus “ibid.”

14.34: Shortened citations versus “ibid.”

The abbreviation ibid. (from ibidem, “in the same place”) usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. In a departure from previous editions, Chicago discourages the use of ibid. in favor of shortened citations as described elsewhere in this section; to avoid repetition, the title of a work just cited may be omitted. Shortened citations generally take up less than a line, meaning that ibid. saves no space, and in electronic formats that link to one note at a time, ibid. risks confusing the reader. In the following examples, shortened citations are used for the first reference, as in a work with a full bibliography (see 14.29). The short forms now preferred by Chicago are followed by the same examples using ibid. Note that either abbreviated form (author only or ibid.) is appropriate only when it refers to the last item cited; where this is not the case, or where the previous note cites more than one source, the fuller form of the shortened citation must be repeated. Note also that with the preferred short form, a page reference must be repeated even if it is the same as the last-cited location (as in note 3); with ibid., an identical page location is not repeated. The word ibid., italicized here only because it is a word used as a word (see 7.63), is capitalized at the beginning of a note and followed by a period.

1. Morrison, Beloved, 3.

2. Morrison, 18.


2. Ibid., 18.

3. Morrison, 18.


3. Ibid.

4. Morrison, 24–26.


4. Ibid., 24–26.

5. Morrison, Song of Solomon, 401–2.

6. Morrison, 433.


6. Ibid., 433.

7. Díaz, Oscar Wao, 37–38.

8. Morrison, Song of Solomon, 403.

9. Díaz, Oscar Wao, 152.

10. Díaz, 201–2.


10. Ibid., 201–2.

11. Morrison, Song of Solomon, 240; Beloved, 32.

12. Morrison, Beloved, 33.

An author-only reference (or ibid.) may also be used within one note in successive references to the same work.

13. Morris Birkbeck, “The Illinois Prairies and Settlers,” in Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673–1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, ed. Paul M. Angle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 62. “The soil of the Big-prairie, which is of no great extent notwithstanding its name, is a rich, cool sand; that is to say, one of the most desirable description” (Birkbeck, 63 [or ibid., 63]).

To avoid a succession of repeated notes for the same works, the content of notes 2–4, 6, and 8–12 in the examples above might instead be placed parenthetically in the text in place of the note references, but only if the works under discussion are clear from the text (see also 13.66).